Book of hours. IE TCD MS 94 Public Deposited

Book of hours. IE TCD MS 94

Shelf Mark/Reference Number
  • IE TCD MS 94
Rights statement
  • Copyright The Board of Trinity College Dublin. Images are available for single-use academic application only. Publication, transmission or display is prohibited without formal written approval of the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.
Publisher location
  • East Anglia, England
Date Created
  • between approximately 1340-1369
Physical extent
  • 157 folios
  • 169mm x 104mm (104mm x 66mm)
  • IE TCD MS 94 is a Latin book of hours from around mid-14th century East Anglia, written in a single hand. It includes calendars, hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary, use of Sarum hours, penitential psalms, litanies, gradual psalms, and a service for the dead. L.F. Sandler dates the codex c.1340-c.1350 -see her Gothic Manuscripts 1285-1385, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 5, London 1986, pages 2-131. Decoration: Decoration is of the highest quality in the East-Anglian manner. According to Sandler o.c., 'This little-known Hours is closely related to the Butler Hours in the Walters Art Gallery: for the Butler Hours see ibid 2:130-131. Part of the ornamental border on 38v and 44 is formed by the decoration on the stub after 38v and the stub before 44 respectively. Partial borders, in gold and colours, exhibit foliage and often beast (e.g. 5v, 16v, 18v, 24, 91), human or drollery (e.g. red mask or monster's head on 2v, crowned figure on 9v, mitred head on 113; man holds up leafy branch of border on 3v; mitred head on 115v is unfinished). Interlace in border on 1v. Border on 8 is inhabited by several people, one of whom stands within architecture. Historiated initial, initials with a head, floral or foliate initials, and beast initials are coloured on ground of gold and sometimes colours (small calendar initials are gold on coloured ground; initial on 49v has interlace motif). Historiated initial on 8 (Matins): crowned and holding plant, Blessed Virgin Mary with the Child. Quite a few initials contain a head (55v, 65v, 66, 67, 76; crowned on 23, 61v, 72; red mask or beast's head on 38, 135v; Jesus' head on 46, 84; head with cap 54v, 81v; head of woman, perhaps Blessed Virgin Mary, on 109v). In addition to initials containing pictures, there are separate paintings in colours on gold or coloured ground. Those in the calendar illustrate the labours of the months (figures are usually cowled) and the zodiacal signs. The calendar pictures are in roundels, the scenes c18 mm in diameter, subsequent pictures other than in initials usually have scenes c68 x 55 mm: Folio 1. January (a) Man drinks from goblet; (b) Aquarius pours water from his mouth and from bowl. Folio 1v. February (a) Person puts on shoes by fire; (b) Pisces. Folio 2. March. Man digs ground with spade; (b) Aries. Folio 2v. April. Man holds trees or shrubs; (b) Taurus. Folio 3. May. Man with plant rides horse; (b) Gemini: two nude children embrace in tub. Folio 3v. June (a) Man reaps; (b) Leo. Folio 4. July (a) Man mows; (b) Cancer. Folio 4v. August (a) Lady, wearing hat, uses scythe; (b) Virgo holds plant. Folio 5. September (a) Man prunes trees or vines; (b) Sagittarius shoots arrow. Folio 5v. October (a) Man with sack for sowing; (b) Scorpio. Folio 6. November (a) Man beats oats for pigs; (b) Man about to kill pig with axe. Folio 6v. December (a) Three figures at table laden with utensils; (b) Figure at table holds vessels, other vessels on table. Folio 7. Murder of Thomas of Canterbury: Group of soldiers in armour, one has prominent-looking sword. Thomas kneels at altar. His cross-bearer (?) with book. Much of this picture and the rubricated caption are savagely scraped off. Folio 7v. Laurence with book and griddle, and Stephen with book and stones. Captioned: Sanctus Laurencius Sanctus Stephanus. Folio 8. Matins. Annunciation: Gabriel with scroll inscribed '(san)cta (Ma)ria'. Blessed Virgin Mary holds book. Plant in a pot between Gabriel and Blessed Virgin Mary, who stand under arch between two towers with a castle or tower behind (at the top of each tower and in middle-storey niche of each tower lower-down stands a figure). Design of the initial, as well as the text of the page, is nearly surrounded by a complicated leafy border framing human figures; at the bottom of the border is a figure standing at the door of a tower and holding both ends of the leafy branches. Some marginal figures are sketched by pen, without colour. The vine-and-figure motif suggests the Jesse-tree motif. Folio 22v. Lauds. Visitation: Blessed Virgin Mary with Elizabeth. Folio 47. Prime. Betrayal: Jesus about to be kissed by Judas. Tonsured Peter with sword. Soldiers with spears, swords, axes. Folio 55v. Tierce. Jesus, with book, before Pilate or Caiaphas and two other men. Winged figure beside Jesus. Folio 61v. Sext. Jesus carries cross. Blessed Virgin Mary and other figures. Folio 66v. None. Crucifixion between two robbers. Folio 72. Vespers. Longinus drives spear into Jesus on cross, while a man with scroll (no legend on it) speaks. Folio 75v. Compline. Deposition from the cross in the presence of Blessed Virgin Mary and another saint [St John?]. Folio 84. Penitential Psalms. The entombment of Jesus. Two persons in group of five pour oil upon shrouded corpse. Folio 109v. Gradual Psalms. Blessed Virgin Mary kneels before altar on which stands gold chalice. Behind her are a man with crutch (probably Joachim) and woman (probably Anne). Folio 114. Service for the dead. Three men and two women at coffin, on which are many candles. One of these persons, a tonsured man, holds an open book from which another tonsured man is reading. Line-fillers display in gold and colours a wide variety of patterns and include among the motifs a monster (e.g. 14v, 28v, 110), a golden fish (14v), two birds (130v). Collation analysis: i(6)+1 ii-iii(12) iv(12) (lacks 8) v(16) (lacks 2,12) vi(12) vii(12) (lacks 7) viii-xiii(12) xiv(6). Catchwords. Please see the Manuscripts & Archives Research Library’s catalogue entry for the MS here:
  • Binding was executed for the College about 1830 in blind-tooled leather
  • Former shelfmark: Lyon: F.5.21
  • For IE TCD MS 94 see W.H. Frere et al., 'Bibliotheca Musico-Liturgica', Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, (1901-1932), 2 volumes, 2:72; W. O’Sullivan in 'Ríocht na Midhe' 7 (1985-1986) 8-9; L. Dennison in 'England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium', ed. W.M. Ormrod, (Woodbridge, 1986), 60-62, 66, fig. 31; Sandler o.c. no. 118, 1:34, 63 (with pls. 307, 308, 312, 313), 2:129, 131-132; R. Stalley, 'The Cistercian Monasteries of Ireland', (London and New Haven, 1987), 219-220, pl. 261; W. O’Sullivan, ‘John Madden’s Manuscripts’, in Essays on the History of Trinity College Library, Dublin, edd. V. Kinane and A. Walsh, (Dublin, 2000) 112, 114; C. Hourihane, 'Gothic Art in Ireland, 1169-1550', (New Haven and London, 2003) 142, with pl. 168.
Finding aid
Resource type
  • ink
  • parchment
Digital Object Id
  • MS94_001
  • 0065634


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