John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270 Public Deposited

John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270

Shelf Mark/Reference Number
  • IE TCD MS 270
Rights statement
  • Copyright The Board of Trinity College Dublin. Images are available for single-use academic application only. Publication, transmission or display is prohibited without formal written approval of the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.
Publisher location
  • [England]
Date Created
  • [between approximately 1240-1320]
Physical extent
  • 1 volume (213 leaves ; 22.2 x 15.7 cm (maximum size))
  • IE TCD MS 270, John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. is a composite collection of school texts, heavily glossed in Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and Middle English. The manuscript is made up of five parts that were produced in England, written between the mid-13th and early 14th centuries. The first part (1-10) contains the Synonyma of John of Garland. The second part (11-13) contains a section of John of Garlands Compendium grammatice. The third part (14-25) contains the Dictionarius of John of Garland. The fourth part (26-33) contains De nominibus utensilium of Alexander Neckham. The fifth part (34-213) contains grammatical and related works, including the Graecismus of Évrard de Béthune, the Doctrinale of Alexander de Villa Dei, a second copy of De nominibus utensilium of Alexander Neckham, De utensilibus of Adam of Balsham, a second copy of the Dictionarius of John of Garland, a Liber hymnorum, Anglo-Norman medieval recipes, the Ps.-Ovidian De mirabilibus mundi, the Deponentiale of Nicholas de Breckendale, and Anglo-Norman grammatical notes on Latin syntax. Script is in several hands, using low grade gothic textualis book hand and anglicana cursive scripts. Folios 1-9v: (1) ff.1-9v: John of Garland, Synonyma, (2) on f.9v a short verse on the four Evangelist Symbols, (3) on ff.9v-10 a short verse on Transubstantiation -- Folios 11-13: (4) John of Garland, Compendium grammatice (extract with gloss); gloss on 13 cites De Trinitate of Boethius -- Folios 14-24: (5) John of Garland, Dictionarius; glosses in Latin and Anglo-Norman French, with occasional use of Middle English words; on f.15v the commentator points out a discrepancy with the Doctrinale of Alexander de Villa Dei; commentary remarks on f.19 relating to Simon de Montfort and the pirate Alan, (6) on f.24 a short piece of verse: Inperium mundi dat mali forma rotundi - pro cruce prelia pronus, (7) on ff.24v-25, a tract on hymns: About hymns: [N]otandum ergo inprimis hymnos fuisse metrice scriptos sed metrum ex uicio scriptorum - metris indifferenter. Text relates to metre of hymns, such as Primo dierum omniumandNocte surgentesand cites Horaces Ars Poetica. Some loss of text on f.24v and f.25 (hole and damage in top margin of pages), (8)-(10) on f.25, three diagrams about the positive, comparative, and superlative degrees of adjectives, (11) on f.25rv there is a glossed hymn, written in prose. Text composed around hole in top margin, suggesting hymn copied after leaf damaged -- Folios 26-33v: (12) Alexander Neckham, De nominibus utensilium; accompanied by gloss in Anglo-Norman French -- Folios 34-113v: (13) Évrard de Béthune, Graecismus; accompanied by glosses in Latin, with some in Anglo-Norman French and Middle English. Glosses cite Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Statius, Claudian, Josephus, Theodolus, Maximian (}Maximinuson f.86), Donatus, Constantine the African (63), gloss (f.60, left column) cites John of Garland as: magister I. de G., (14) on f.113v are notes on humours and the elements: (a) Nota quod iiiior istis elementis conparantur iiiior partes quo respondent; (b) iiiior sunt elementa. Ignis calidus; (c) Etati. Vnde notandum quod estas iiii complexciones que respondent iiiior partibus anni; (d) Item istis iiiior elementis comparantur iiiior humores qui iiiior complexciones., (15) on f.113v are verses on the humours, (16) on f.114 Évrard de Béthune, Graecismus (extract), (17)-(25) on f.114rv are short pieces on grammar, meanings of words, diagrams on ancestry, and more -- Folios 115-155: (26) Alexander de Villa Dei, Doctrinale (Revised text of John of Garland; accompanied by glosses in Latin, and occasionally Anglo-Norman French and Middle English. Several entries refer to John of Garland -- Folio 155: (27)-(29) Charms against mice and rats -- Folio 155v-156v: (32)-(45) Miscellaneous notations -- Folios 157-169: (46) Alexander Neckham, De nominibus utensilium. Entries in Latin and Anglo-Norman French -- Folios 169v-177: (47) Adam of Balsham (}Paruipontanusor Petit-Pont), De utensilibus. Entries in Latin and Anglo-Norman French. Glosses cite Ovid, Isidore and the Alexandreis of Walter of Châtillon -- Folios 177v-184v: (48) John of Garland, Dictionarius (See text (5) above). Entries in Latin and Anglo-Norman French. On f.179 the commentator disagrees with the Doctrinale of Alexander de Villa Dei: Hic sotularis et non hec sotular quamuis dixerit Doctrinale -- Folios 185-192: (49) Hilarius Aurelianensis (attributed), Liber hymnorum -- Folio 192v: (50)-(53) Miscellaneous notations -- Folios 193-194v: (54) Ps.-Ovid (Thierry, abbot of St Trond?), De mirabilibus mundi, in hexameter verse -- Folios 195-203v: (55) Nicholas de Breckendale, Deponentiale -- Folios 203v-204v: (56)-(69) Miscellaneous notations -- Folios 204v-212v: Hilarius Aurelianensis, Liber hymnorum (Text (49) continued from f.192) -- Folios 213r-v: (69) Remaining stub of missing leaf, with writing on verso relating to St Botolph (sancti Bolulfi, f.213v).
  • In Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and Middle English.
  • Former shelfmarks: Lyon: D.4.9 ; Bernard: 170 ; Foley: F.4 ; c1670: [F.1.10]
Biographical note
  • Johannes de Garlandia or John of Garland was a medieval grammarian and university teacher. His dates of birth and death are unknown, but he probably lived from about 1190 to about 1272; not to be confused with Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus, active around 1270-1320) who was a French music theorist of the late ars antiqua period of medieval music. An entry (from New Grove) recorded in the Library of Congress Name Authority for Johannes de Garlandia, the music theorist, explains: Although several scholars ... have sought to identify him with the poet and grammarian Johannes de Garlandia (c1190-c1272), an Englishman also teaching in Paris, the important studies by Reimer and Rasch reject this idea. See: and
Related url
  • This description was adapted (2021) from the following sources: T.K. Abbott,Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin(Dublin, 1900), no. 270; M.L. Colker,Trinity College Library Dublin Descriptive Catalogue of the Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin Manuscripts(Aldershot, 1991), no. 270; J. Scattergood, with N. Pattwell and E. Williams,Trinity College Library Dublin: A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Middle English and Some Old English(Dublin, 2021), 172-173. For MS 270 see: P. Meyer, 'La chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois', (Paris, 1875-1879), 2:xxiii, in 'Romania' 14 (1885) 386 and ib. 36 (1907) 485 n.5 and 486 n.2; James o.c. [on (141)] 287; M. Esposito in 'Revue des bibliothèques' 24 (1914) 193-194, in 'English Historical Review' 30 (1915) 461, and in 'Hermathena' no. 42 (1920) 130-131; A.F. Paetow, 'Regesta Pontificum Romanorum', 129-131; J.C. Russell, 'Dictionary of Writers of Thirteenth Century England', 1936, repr. 1971, 87; L. Minio-Paluello in Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies 3 (1954) 118 n.2; H. Walther, 'Initia Carminum Ac Versuum Medii Posterioris Latinorum', no. 8262; M.L. Colker in 'Scriptorium' 28 (1974) 68-71; L. Shields, 'French Texts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin', Hermathena no. 121, (1976), 90-99, 94; H. Silvestre in 'Bulletin de théologie ancienne et médiévale' 12 (1980) 649-650; G.L. Bursill-Hall, 'A Census of Medieval Latin Grammatical Manuscripts', Grammatica Speculatiua 4, (Stuttgart, 1981), 59 and in 'Historiographia Linguistica' 3 (1976) 161-162, 170 and ib. 4 (1977) 7, 12; Dobson and Harrison locc. citt.; R.W. Hunt, 'The Schools and the Cloister: The Writings of Alexander Nequam (1157-1217)', ed. M. Gibson, (Oxford 1984), 126; T. Hunt, 'Teaching and Learning in Thirteenth- Century England', (Woodbridge, 1991), 3 volumes, 1:39, 42-44, 87, 95, 138, 153, 155, 166-167, 178, 178 n.4, 191-192, 301, 395, 2:15, 26, 33, 37, 54, 65, 82, 125, 146, 148; A.G. Rigg, 'A History of Anglo-Latin Literature 1066-1422', (Cambridge, 1992), 374 n.234; F.-J. Konstanciak in 'Mittelalterliches Jahresbericht' 29.1 (1994) 143; T. Haye (ed.), 'John of Garland's Compendium Gramatice', (Cologne and elsewhere, 1995), 42, 48-49, 50, 60; 'Medioevo latino' 17 (1996) no. 2032; J. Öberg in 'Mittelalterliches Jahresbericht' 32 (1997) 194; 'Bibliographie Annuelle du Moyen Âge Tardif' 9 (1999) no. 1572; R.J. Dean (with the collaboration of M.B.M. Boulton), 'Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts', (London, 1999) nos. 297, 301, 439; R. Sharpe, 'A Handlist of the Latin Writers of Great Britain and Ireland before 1540', Publications of the Journal of Medieval Latin 1, (2001) 256, 385.
Sub Fonds
  • John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270, part 5, folios 34 to 213
  • John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270, part 4, folios 26 to 33
  • John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270, part 1, folios 1 to 10
  • John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270, part 3, folios 14 to 25
  • John of Garland, Synonyma, etc. IE TCD MS 270, part 2, folios 11 to 13
Finding aid
  • A 14th-century ownership inscription appears on 9v: 'Iste liber constat Tomas Houeton'. A Thomas de Houton was granted licence in 1346 to study one year at Oxford, and in about 1350 was rector of Pudleston, Herefordshire (A.B. Emden, 'A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500', (Oxford, 1957-1959), 3 volumes, 2:974). The manuscript was later acquired by James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh and primate of All Ireland (r. 1625-1656) as evidenced by inscriptions in his own hand (157 and 193). The compiled manuscript does not feature the shelfmark of Usshers library, but likely entered the collections through the gift of the library by King Charles II to Trinity College Dublin in 1661.
  • This digitisation work was made possible by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Resource type
  • ink
  • colored ink
  • parchment (animal material)
  • calf (leather)
  • b197207376


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